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□ Calooiad pla«t and/or Wimrationi/ 


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Th* copy nimad h«ra hat bMn raproduead thank* 
to tha ganaroalty of: 

National Library of Canada 

L'axamplaira film« fut raproduit grtca t la 
g4n4roalt* da: 

Blblloth4qua nationala du Canada 

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poulbia conaidaring tha condition and lagiblllty 
of tha original copy and in kaaping with tha 
filming contract spacificationa. 

Original capiat In printad papar covara ara fiimad 
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tha laat paga with a printad or liluttratad impraa- 
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or iiluatratad Impraaaion. 

Tha last racorJad frama on aach microflcha 
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Mapa, Plata*, charts, ate. may b* fiimad at 
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1 2 3 







"""icen mowrioN mr ouit 

(ANSI onl BO ItST CHJWT No. 2) 

Iffi ^ 


■ 22 


■ 2.0 



•W^Cott Main StrM ^ 





Compii<d ni4 tmwi'br tt« 

of Sixteen 

Some Facts Refeardinft 



Compilml «nd iHoad by tha 

OF Sixteen 


••"■"•"I fWirury 21st, WW 




'"bis report is .'ather long— an unavoid- 
able result of the effort to draw unon the ex- 
periences of a large number of communities 
in their dealings with commercialized vice, in 
order to cover the ground fairly. 

We have gathered much information together 
and have endeavored to eliminate all unneces- 
sary material. As the matter so vitally concerns 
the community— so directly concerns every man 
and woman, every growing boy and girl in 
Montreal,— we trust that, even in the midst of 
many other pressing duties, you will take time 
'o read this report. 

Committee of Sixteen. 

This Report is intended to be kept for reference. 



Rev. Herbert Symonds. D.D., LL.D Chainnan 

Irving P. Rexford Vice-Chalmum 

Alex. Falconer. K.C Hon. TieaMucr 

Mtai Kathleen Moore Recording Secretary 

MiM Lucy C. Phinney, A.B.. , Secretary, Reeearch Department 
Owen Dawson Secretary, Law Enforcement Department 


MiasL. E. F. Barry Hon. Secreury. CMhoUc SodU Srrvice GuUd. 

John Bradford Comnnmity Secreury, Montml YM.CJL 

Mias Margaret Campbell.. AMdatian ProteMuit Women Todm <d 

„ Montnd 

James Camitheiv. 

Dr. W. W. Chipman Montml Mitonity Hoipiui. 

W. B. CoUey Salvation Amy 

A. O. Dawson 

Miaa Olive Z. DeLany Dwtrict Supcrintoidait. Victorian Onto of 

. ». »^ Nunaa 

J. N. Dupius 

Mrs. F. Wilson Fairman. . Pr««ident, Shelterin( Home 

J. Howard T. Falk C>iRctor,Social Service Dept.,McGiUUninnt7 

Isaac H. Ganunell Vioe-Rector. High School of Montnal 

Rev. Father Gauthier St. Jamea Pariah 

Lieut.-Colonel A . Lome C. 

Gilday, M.D., D.S.O. . . . Weatem Hoapital of Montieal 

Miss B. Glassman FederaUon of Jewiah Philanttoopiea 

Miss Bella Hall Head Worlter, Univeiaity Settlement 

Rev. Dr. E. I. Hart Superintendent, Methodiat Union, Monlnitf 

Maj. A. K. Haywood, M.D.Superintendent, Montreal General Ho^atal 
Zephirin Hebert 

Udy Hinglton Hon. Pmldmt, CathoUc WommV Falmttgii 

MlM Mabel C. Jamiewn . Gcncnl Secretary. Montnal Y.W.C.A. 
Dr. David W. Mackenzie. Royii victorii Hnpiul 
Major PhiUp Maclceiuie. 

MiM Quigley CthoUc Sodetk. 

J. Augiute Richard 

Mra. CoJin K. Runel Natknal Committee (or Menui Hygiene 

Dr. Samuel S. Schwartz Temple Em«nu-Et 

F. W. Stewart 

MiM Eleanor Tatley P»ident, Loci Coundl of Womm 



110-213 Drummond BuUding, 511 St. Catherine Street W., 


Telephom Uptown 8720 


619 TranqMTtation Building, 120 St. James Street. 

Tel«pbane Main 3128 

A copy of this report will be mailed to any local address upon 
receipt of a written request. 


I. Introduction— '**'■ 

General Sources of Reference f 

II. Toleration- 
Effects in Montreal. . . 14 

Exploitation of Vice a Crime. '.'.'.'. 15 

Toleration Contrary to Canadian Law '.'..'. I6 

III. Regulation- 

Brothels — 

European opinion increasingly hostile w 

White slave traffic in brothels. 19 

Brothels futile from standpoint of order. 20 

Brothels advertise vice. ... 20 

False sense jf security 21 

Protests against "Maisons Toierfes"' 23 

Further Arguments against brothels '.'. 26 

R^stration of Prostitutes- 
Registration always incomplete 29 

Forcible insciiption condemns women for life. 29 

Voluntary inscription a failure ' 30 

Street conditions not improved 31 

No sanitary efficacy '.'.'.'.'.'.'. 31 

Volume of prostitution may be enlarged. 33 

Regulation losing ground ...'.'.'.'.['. 33 

Contagious Diseases Acts — 

Acts condemned and repealed 35 

Less disease since repeal 35 

Problem in France unsolved 35 

Regulation condemned by Chicago Committee . 37 

IV. Segregation- 

Telephone makes segregation ineffective . 39 
Segregation failed in Chicago . . '40 

Segregation advertises vice 42 

Vice commissions opposed to segregation 44 

Japanese oppose segregation 4$ 



V. Repression- ^^ 
Vice Surveys- 
History of movement in U.S... AR 

Repression in New York City. 5? 

Diap-am showing resulta in New York City .' .' ' ' 54 
Resulte of repression elsewhere in U.S.. ' 55 

InjunCUon and Abatement Laws .,,'.. 60 

Law Enforcement— 

Ownere of property prosecuted 62 

Sale of Liquor in Disorderly Houses ! . . . , 64 

Education on Venereal Disease- 
War showed civilian conditions. . 66 

Contmence comjMtible with health 66 

Cost of prostitution in disease. 67 

Venereal disease legislation at 

Repression for Montreal '.'.'.'.'.'.['.'." 68 

Appendix A— Recommendations concerning fining system 70 

Appndiz B— Recommendations for repressive measures. . 76 


The first report of the Committee of Sixteen contained a 
subscription coupon to be used by those who desired to share in 
the work undertaken by the Committee, by subscribing to- 
wards its fund for current expenses. Twenty thousand dollars 
was asked for the year commencing November 1st, 1918. It was 
stated that several amounts of $1,000 and $500 were looked for 
in addition to a large number of smaller subscriptions. The 
response, though generous, has so far supplied only about a quarter 
of the amount required. No direct personal canvass has yet been 
made, as it is hoped that citizens will voluntarily and promptly 
provide the required funds, without its being necessary for the 
Committee members to take time from their regular work for 
the purpose of collecting money. 

No doubt many who received the first report intended to 
subscribe something but delayed and then neglected to do so. 
If you are one of these will you not make use of the enclosed 
coupon and envelope. 

Draw cheques to order of A. Falconer, Hon. Treas., and mail 
them to Committee of Sixteen, 213 Drummond Building. 





General Sotirces of Reference 

The Committee of Sixteen in seeking sources for 
this report has studied the experience of various or- 
gamzations m England and the United States formed 
for Uie suppression of vice, and has found them in- 
toestingly similar in aims and methods to its own 
We have found other organizations of private individuals, 
hke ourselves, which have been formed because they 
desir^, first, to get accurate information as to local 
cmiditions; second, to study experience elsewhere; and 
third, to mane a continuous effort to deal with the vice 
problem. Notable among these organizations is the 
Bureau of Social Hygiene of New York City, which 
was estabhshed by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., in 1911 
M an outcome of the white slave investigation in New 

X™L9^'"^n^,«.^^* ^P^'^ so<alled "Rockefeller 
Grand Jury m 1910. 

• xt"^**^,^?*^" started with a study of vice conditions 
m New York conducted by George J. Kneeland, who had 
been Director of Investigation for the Vice Commission 
in Chicago, m 1911. Mr. Kneeland's book, "Com- 
meroahzed Prostitution in New York City," shows the 
results of his careful study and is considered an invaluable 
text book for all students of the problems of prostitu- 

Recogniang that a study of experience in regard to 
prostitution elsewhere was essential, the Bureau of Social 
Hygiene plMined a survey of European methods and 
appranted Dr. Abraham Flexner. General Secretary of 
^^•'i.^xf??" ?°^ °^ New York, to undertake this 
work. Not havmg done any previous work on the pro- 
blem of prostitution, Dr. Flexner brought an entirely 
o^ mind to the study of this subject, which was con- 
sidered one of the qualifications to insure a fair-minded 
prraentatum. He was given a free hand to make his 
study and submit his findings, and visited and made 
ST^^ " practicaUy all the important cities of 
tunye. The results of two years of continuous study are 
foimd m his book, "Prostitution in Europe," which is 
widely recognized as the most authoritative reference 
book on this subject in the twentieth century, and will 
be quoted frequently in this Report. 

It is interesting to note that as an adjunct to ite 
woric die Bureau established as one of its first steps a 
social hygioie laboratory at Bedford HiUs in connection 
with the Women s Reformatory there. The laboratory 
was under the durection of Miss Katharine Bement Davii 
then supenntendent of the New York State Reformatoiy 
to- Wranen and who has since been appointed the first 
WMnanPohce Commissioner of New York. Its work was 
dMi^ied to get at first hand the social, moral, and physical 
^ect of a hfe of vice on its victims. In the same way 
the Committee of Sixteen is endeavoring, through the 
study of scores of girls referred to it, to obtain an intimate 
knowledge of the underlying vice conditions of Montreal 
. In an article describing the work of the Bureau of 
Social Hygiene, Mr. Jerome D. Green, Director of the 
American Social Hygiene Association, says of Dr. 
flexner 8 book, which was written for the Bureau:— 

^^ " It is not too much to say that this volume 
institutes the most valuable single contri- 

^^ bution to the solution of the problem of prosti- 
tution m this country. This remarkable result 

^^was achieved, not by any dogmatic enuncia- 
tion of theories new and old, and least of all 


by the discovery of any panacea for the evUs 
associated with prostitution; it was achieved 
by a simple, clear, straightforward, and im- 
partial presentation of the facts of European 
expenence with regard to the prevalence of the 
_ evU, the vanous methods of dealing with it, 
and the results apparenUy attributable there- 
•'u , ■ "^ *"^ appearance of Mr. Flexner's 
Jx)ok, it has become impossible for any in- 
telligent person in this countiy, professing a 
desu-e for a practical as distinguisned from 
a sentimental or puritanical attitude toward 
the problem of prostitution, to refer to Euro- 
^^ pean methods of regulation and toleration, or to 
their supposed result in limiting the extent of 
vice and disease, as offering the only key to the 
mtional handUng of the problem in this coun- 
try. Mr. Flexner has shown us that regula- 
tion does not regulate, that segregation does 
not segregate, and that systems of ihedical 
exaimnation are not only a farce, more or 
less honestly administered, but are probably 
worse than useless 

.. . 1"^^? one inescapable conclusion from a 
study of the facts which Mr. Flexner has put 
before us with the most scrupulous abstention 
from argument or dogmatic assertion, is that 
prostitution is a modifiable phemmenon, and 
that the question whether its total volume, and 
consequently the volume of all its attendant 
evils, shall be held to a minimum, depends 
upon whether there is a well sustained attitude 
of antagonism on the part of the community. 

^^ Ihe police are an important factor in the ex- 
pression of this antagonism, but the capacity 
of even the best police force in the world to do 
more than the community wants it to do, has 
limits that must not be ignored."' 

■ Sodal Hygiene. January 1917, pp. SS. 

. Dr. Flexner's boc* was followed by a third puWi- 
ration of the Bureau, "European Police Systems," by 
Raynwnd Fosdick, then Qjmmissioner of Accounts <rf 
New York City, who has since become famous as Chair- 
man of the United States War Department Commission 
on Traimng Camp Activities, whose department of law 
aiforcement has made it possible for the citizens 
throughout the United States to bring about the 
wholesale repression of commercialized vice in American 

Another association, which was nation-wide in 
scope, was organized at about this time for the cor- 
relation of Amencan experience, the publication of special 
uterature, and the education of communities in problems 
of social hygiene. This organization. The American 
bocial Hygiene Association, with offices in New York 
City, publishes a quarterly magazine, "Social Hygiene," 
which we shall frequently quote. This association co- 
operated in the work of the Committee for Civilian 
Co-operation m Combating Venereal Disease in the 
Council of National Defence, which has been responsible 
lor the strong attack on venereal disease and prostitution 
made by the United States War Department in civilian 

..o^u^.®™*i^ organization was formed in England: 
The AMOciation for Moral and Social Hygiene," being 
ttie Bntidi Branch of the International Abolitionist 
l-ederation. This Federation is incorporated with the 
Ladies National Association for the Abolition of State 
Regulation of Vice and for the Promotion of Social 
runty, both of these organizations having been founded 
by Josephme BuUer. They were the direct outcome 
ot the tremendous wave of opposition to the Contagious 
Diseases Acts, in England, which provided for a form of 
■ ^fSic^^°"n^'^ ^'^** ^^'■^ Passed in 1866, and repealed 
in 18K6.' The publication of the Association for Moral 
and Social Hygiene is "The Shield," which we shaU 
frequently quote. One of the aims of the Association 
IS to ca rry on "a permanent enquiry as to the moral 

•Seepage 34 


ecooanlc. or other causes of this social sore (prosti- 
taUon), as to ito effect»-and as to the means of remwiying 

♦• ^? "^S°^, Hygiene" there is the following descrio- 

SSdi iT'rs^f''^''^-"'^^ ^!!? ^«« ^' ^^^^ 
weekly m 1870 Founded to oppose the 'in- 

fS„^ Contagious EHseases Acts and to proclaim their 

mtiuty, mjustice, and mimorality,' it has consistently 

^red ag^st all forms of official regulation o™Md 

lor the eradication of prostitution."' 

v^J^L'^?u^ ^^ ^^- Committee of Fourteen of New 
York and the Committee of Fifteen in Chicago, more 
nearly approximate our own in being city wide and not 
nation wide. The New York Committee pla^ iu 
mphaas on a study of conditions, especiaUy in regard to 
law enforcement, its most notable publication havine 
St?,rnn '" ^^^?= '"^^^ ^^ EvilTn New York Q?? 
H^ nL°^-^Tf Enforcement." The New York committ^ 
does not Itself prosecute but presents facts, works for 

!IffoJLl?'^^^'°"' ^'^ '?y^ '^ emphasis on stimulating 
mterest and coK^ration between police, courts, and 
public spirited citizens. 

nu- ^^^ S^^f?° Committee of Fifteen, after the 
£vl^°„7,"* Commission had made a comprehensive 
f^tLf-^^ conditions, which was published uS^ 
the title -The Soaal Evil in Chicago," places its em- 
^Msis on prosecution. This Committee has been largely 
rreponsible for a great number of successful prosecutiora 
which have resulted Ln cleaning up Chicago's s^^t^ 

^4^^*t, ^.r'^T °*«^^ commi^ns Sb^ 
or^zed after the pattern of these two pioneers, but 
Mne has published so complete a study of the problem. 
Kfi^P ^^^ ^.'^^ ^d Chicago reports have helpS 
to define the nature of the problem of commerdallzS 
,>^ «,P^i^w V t'^Penence, and we regard these reports 
m the light of highly authoritative text books. 

The organizations and publications here referred 
to cons titute very largely our sources of reference. As 

' pgerts luid Prindple., InternaUonal Abolitionist Federation 
' Social Hygiene," January 1917, p. 143. ~erauon. 


conditions in the United States are so similar to our own, 
we have seen fit to draw largely from their experience, 
especially as great emphasis has been laid in recent years, 
m the United States, on scientific studies of actual con- 
ditions. The fact that most of these studies were made 
by organizations of private citizens like ourselves, and 
have been successful in bringing about a marked change 
in conditions, makes their experience of particular 





We shall discuss and define in turn the policies of 
Toleration, Regulation, Segregation, and Repression, 
and we shall begin by defining Toleration, and portraying 
uie evil effects of this policy in our own city of Montreal. 
No better instance has been found to illustrate its far- 
reaching difficulties a»i.d vicious results. 

Toleration, though for convenience called a " policy, ' ' 
might be described as a lack of policy, rather than as a 
policy in itself, so much does this attitude of toleration 
grow out of negligence and indifference. It results from 
an attitude of mind which fails to conceive of pro- 
stitution as more than the immorality of two willing 
individuals, and which neglects to take into account 
prostitution as involving physical and moral ruin to 
some, and ill-gotten profit to others. 

Effects in Montreal 

No matter how soon "Toleration" is done away 
with, in our city of Montreal, the evil effects of the period 
in which this policy was pursued will remain to be 
reckoned with for a long time. We have a problem 
of almost insuperable difficulty in combating Com- 
mercialized Vice here, which is due to that long 


Certabhshed attitude of toleration. We have in the first 
! a very large niunber of houses, many of whidf iTe 

m^tJ^J^rvi"'^. °'*"*^'* ^*^ y^^": ^^ have an m^ti- 
S^^««"^'*,'' "^"^tes. many of whom we have aUowwi 
to be regularly drawn into this Ufe, without eitl^ pi^ 
^ir^'.h^f •""^^'^, '?f?".^t prevention; w^tav?^ 
pubhc that IS so famiUarized with flagrant vice am- 

ordse mipossible to overcome; we know that tSreha 

SS'tW*^.T-'°Jl^" '!?^P?^ °^ the victinJLtom^ 
SiT^ .J^f- ""P '^y o^ "t'zens of Montreal are not 
rfS t?,be8tir themselves long enough to brin?ab«rt a 
change m conditions. We have a poUce depaiSt 
^^J^J^"" ^^^^^ t« the ineSe SS^f 
nri^iZJ"1 corruptwn by the creation of mi&ly 
SXi^^i^?^™ ^° ^^ **th: and we lavlcS^ 
courts handicapped by serious defects in law and practic? 

welIa.r^'*Sff''T^''*' ?P""°" in .Montreal seems fairly 
weu agreed that Toleration as a po icy is no longer to he 

L^^*^ and continuous action wUl bring about ifa 
overthrow and that no system of police raids and &i« 

r^^- r i"^t*^^ '".t° consideration and to put com- 
m^iahzedprostitutionon the level of crime rather thS"f 
vice. The policy of Repression which the Committ^ 
of Sttteen advocates includes in its full scoperot <mlv 
comtant enforcement of the law aga^st^nSSerffi 

fa?nS't-""°"^^ f '■^?' ''"t cJstructiv^^S^ 
for prevention and reformation as well. 

Exploitation of Vice a Crime 

thP l^^',wT^'viP ^ ^^^^ "^ "Prostitution and 

Slird'totrS&SL-"'"^'" °^ °P™°" •" ^-^ 

"uuH^A ^i"^f'°\^^ respects public opinion 

••frl^fS^'j'-' '?°-^^T' the moment the 
act (of prretitution) mvolves others beside the 

^ two participants. As soon as order, decency 
the contammation of minors, or the interest of 


an exploiter is invdved, a totally different 

quesUon arises But wh<>n the streeU 

are used to carry on negotiatiors ind thereby 
othos are drawn into the maelstrom; when 
third parties,— be they pimps, bordell keepers, 

^ vendorsof liquor and entertamment, or others,— 
endeavor to develop prostitution for their own 
profit; when disease is communicated, not 
mfrequently to innocent persons; in all such 
cases a third party is concerned; and a 
public that was more or less indifferent as to 

,,what took place between two mature in- 
dividuals has become increasingly clear as to 

Ijits interest and duty The state pro- 
hibits the manufacture of prostitutes by 

;' heavily penalizing the white slave traffic; it 

^attacks the pimp system on the score of ite 
inhumanity and becaute it seeks to widen 

_^^ficially the scope of the prostitute's opera- 
tions; the bordell, the liquor shop, the low 
cabaret are in the same category. Wherever 
a case can be made out against a third party, 
the law tends to become increasingly explicit 
and severe, for the reason that, even though 
prostitution itself be only a vice, its exploita- 
tion for the benefit of others violates every 
ranception of humanity and needlessly extends 
the range of demoralization and disease."' 

Toleration Contrary to Canadian Law 

hi a pamphlet entitled "The Social Evil"' (Tolera- 
tion Condemned), by Sir Henry Taschereau, we have the 
legal situation in Canada defined in respect to orosti- 

« u " ^" Fraiice, in Germany, and generally in 
the countries where regulation exists, al- 
though it is admitted that prostitution, in 

■ Prostitution in Europe, pp. 118-119. 

' A report to the City Council of Montreal, Feb. 18th, 1905, pp. 15-16. 


natural law as well as in common law, is an 
evil, there is no qualified offence in the mere 
fact of prostitution, and this has enabled those 
who are in favour of governmental inscription 
and tolerance, to found and maintain their 

_ "England and the United Stages, after re- 
pudiating this sytem, have enact i laws which 
contain about the same provision as those of 
our Code. Prostitution is considered a crimi- 
nal pffence and is punished. 

"It is, then, quite certain that in Canada, 
as m the other countries above referred to, the 
theones of official regulation and administra- 
tive tolerance which may be discussed, and 

^^ even admitted in other countries, are positively 
discountenanced by our legislation; are, so to 
speak, placed under the ban by our law and 

;]can be advocated only by the enemies of the 
law Itself in their efforts to have it amended. 
So long as that law remains what it is, the 
provmcial, civic and municipal authorities 
have only to submit to it and apply it in all 


Regulation is, in the broadest sense, an attempt to 
mitigate the evils of prostitution while at the same time 
toleratmg its existence. Regulation operates in Europe 
with Its emphasis on public health. Under systems of 
regulation It has been attempted either to confine prosti- 
tution to licensed brothels, whose inmates are examined 
by public officials, or to examine such prostitutes at 
intervals as can be registered or inscribed. In England, 
Denmark, Holland, Switzerland, and Norway, a policy 
in direct opposition to Regulation has developed. This 
altemaUve policy is called "Abolition," meaning the 
abolition of Regulation or the "abolition of prostituticm 
specially regarded as a legaUy tolerated institution." 


Public orinion in EnKland and the United Si»ttm Mn« 
aeneraUy oppoKd toT^regutoted^ vtoe «^Zo& 
SJJU^t"" of prortitutSTi? inSrferSce^Ste^ 
sona^ liberty, a tendency hat ariwn to^Se tti S^ 

./ '^o™ of 8<Halled Regulation is the not nr«. 

unio- police «upervMooMS caffi "ll^ii*",.'"" 

of thl^ <S.^- k"',!^,'^'"^^ P"^ ^orth in support 

cties IS cited as an example to bl^K. "^" 

European Opinion Increasingly Hostile 

"brolhelf-or'Si,''""'?? of prostitution are called 


" fW^i?""^ increasingly hostile; at the piS 

tune It IS permitted in France. BeL^^ 

the oerman Empire. Holland. Switzerland. 

.. P'S"*'*' Norway, Sweden, and Great Britain. 
..^•1 "°? '^ Austria, no further concessions 

wui under any circumstances be granted; 

whenever, and for whatever reason, a boidell 

ctoies, the institution is by so much nearer to 


^ .ii"iii!?*?"2? ^ilf '^^"'^ responsible for the decay 
of the brothel, Dr. Flexner says:— 

^_ "The bordell prospered as long as iu man- 
agement was uncontrolled; its decay set in the 
moment public sentiment required the slight- 
Mt deference to the dictates of humanity. 

^I-or, m the first place, the bordell can be 
ten^ted only through the exertions of the 
trafficker. A few hopeless wretches, whose 
independen* career is over, may of their own 
accord seek ite food and shelter; but these are 
precisely the women whom the management 
accepte only under pressure of necessity. 

Jfoung and attractive inmates are desired,— 
innocent, or, at least, beginners. Prior to their 

^^ suppression in Zurich, 60% of the inmates of 
Its 18 bordells had not completed thpir seven- 
teenth year."' 

White Slave Traffic in Brothels 

Mr. George J. Kneeland points out the relation 
between white slave traffic and houses of prostitution, 

..♦u "^°"8es of prostitution cannot exist except 
^^ through ti-afficking in women. Prostitutes who 
live scattered through the city may earn money 
for their pimps; but traffic in scattered pro- 
stitutes 18 practically impossible. As soon as 
houses are set up, an opportunity for trade is 
created. The proprietors give specific orders 

' Prostitution in Eurone, p. IG6 
' Ibid., p. 182. 


"XuV°i7^r^°^r yo""8 «ir'8. for innocent 
^^gu^k for blondes, for brunettes, for slender 
, women, for stout women. And the procurer 
" ^^i? °S^'^?' '■^sorting to every possible device 
" ntS^n^" !? ~*° ?^''^'^i'"*^'"«P^«^ntation, 
"i?,™V" «"'•'!?""«• <>'■ **>3t not- The white 
" w V. '^ J^"® "ot only a hideous reality, 
,,but a reality almost wholly dependent on the 
existence of houses of prostitution."' 

Brothels Futile From Standpoint of Order 

.. j^®,^ matter of fact, coincidentally with the 
^, gradual extinction of the bordell, general street 
"l^Al^°f ^''^ improved throughout Europe; 
^_ and the few towns whose streets are strikinriv 
free from prostitution are without exception 
towns in which neither regulation nor the bor- 

"f=,i «'^'*'-r^''^ '^''^^" •« "ot the controlling 
^factor, police, courts, public opinion decidei 
and police, courts, and public opinion are likely 
JO be most vigorously in favor of clean streets 
m commumties that do not recognize pro- 
stitution as a legitimate livelihood.' 

Brothels Advertise Vice 

"ti, '2}Tu throughout this chapter considered 
Oie bordel mainly as a factor in the programme 

.,of regulation. It is from the st^d^btof 
order evidently futile. But from 'ZthS 
standpomt It is worse than futile. Theboidell 

^ gives to sexual vice its most orominent ad- 
v ertisement. By working on the curiosity af 

I S^S"'?*''?'^ P^sUtution in New York Citv d 99 
' ProatituUon in Europe, p. 194. '^ 

..the young and of strangers-its main patrons, 
by the way-It substantially increases demand- . 

"^/^^''^- *=°"'*^"^ *"'•<=« of its im^s 
It virtually mcreases supply. It is therefore 

.absolutely at war with*^^und public S 
which auns to reduce both^ertainly toS 

"LZS'fl°"' '"f':^^- P'^^ly- the bordell 
" Jlo tr^^'^T^?^ '"Stance of exploitation for 
..the benefit of third parties, wWch modem 
..feelmg and legislation are emphatically S 
"mmed to prevent."' <- i-«uiy ueier 

False Sense of Security ' 

In speaking of the false sense of securitv rp<!iiltin<r 
from regulation from a sanitary Jo^ of^ri^"' d? 
Flexner quotes from the book of Prof. BlSo a 
German authority, "Hygiene der Prostituting- ' 
,." 'The public is fooled. The laity is led to 

..from healthy prostitute.; As all the diseased 

"r^Z^^/^''^ l*? ^^^ ^"^P^- relations vdth 
.controlled prostitutes are free from danger 

This is the popular conclusion '." 
Dr. Flexner goes on to say :— 

"f.,="^'j^ ^^'^ ^""^ "°^ at pains to disavow 
_ the Mtural consequence of their own policy. 
"-^t Pans regulations state in bold tyi^Tthat 
the card delivered to inscribed women must 
••^^A ^ "^^Karded as an incentive to debauch'; 
.and the public is commonly warned that the 
..medical examinafaon is not to be interpreted 

as a guarantee of safety. 
" 1 "^^K^lation may therefore be regarded as 

..mtercourse: what does it accomplish by way 
Of rendermg such intercourse harmless?"' 

! f^Pftitution in Europe, p. 202 
' Ibid., p. 222. 


h1^"?!IJ1?*' ^sease." medical inspection in brothels is 
discussed with enhghtening statistics, showing that a 
larger per cent of brothel inmates are found to be diseased 
than scattered prostitutes. Dr. Flexner then says:— 
"There is therefore no basis in experience 
for a verdict favorable to bordells the 
ground that they conduce to a form of . .jdical 
^^ mspection that tends to diminish disease. The 
fact is that .... the recklessness developed 
m bordells consequent on alcoholic indulgence 
operates to prevent rather fhan to encourage 
precautionary measures. The women never 
cease to be dangerous; and as they transact 
an amount of business impossible outside, the 
actual amount of infection is enormously 
mcreased. I 

Further testimony in regard to a false sense of 
secunty IS given m "The Shield." which quotes extracts 
frmn evidence given before a New South Wales Com- 
mittee on Prevalence of Venereal Diseases. It quotes 
5: 111 w*?°' ^^ector General of Public Health, of New 
south Wales, as saying: — 

"There is one rather serious argument 
agamst examination. A doctor, quite a com- 
petent man. may jxamine a woman and find 
no evidence of disease on her person, and yet 
she may be capable of conveying infection to 
.. ""^^ 4"^ ^^""^ is the possibUity that a man, 
with a false sense of security knowing that a 
wonan has been examined by a doctor, may 
fndulge more freely in promiscuous sexual 
intercourse, and that may tend to spread the 
^_ disease. To obtain satisfactory results it would 
_^ practically be necessary to examine a prostitute 
every day. The great objection to medical 
exammation of prostitutes is that it would give 
p eople a false sense of security."^ 

' Proatitution in Europe, p. 261. 

' The Shield. July 1918. For descripUon of The Shield, see p. 12. 


Protests Against " Maisons Toler6es " 

of "T^e'sS'^. 'Ttl^'^f^r °' °'-- W"»"' editor 
Shield". - meeting as reported in "The 

"nr r^^r^^Kp^f ^ '® ^«^s^ the estabUshment 
or re^tabhshment, of the evil syst^ of 

"Jl^^^ • ^^^' ^ *^ ^°P^' swept away for 

"thatK''h^L^°'*'^y"^^«°- WeobStto 
"^= L vf' ^<=3"se our conscience condemns it estebhshing the double moral staffi 

Secondly, our reason condemns it T ihe 

utterly wrong way to deal with vice. TWnUv 
..experience condemns it. . . vh^ 

whole civilized world has di^vered the 
..^^amental falkcy and failure ofSs^stem 

Demnark Norway. Italy have abandSi?: 

"inrf w Fraace, France was its birthplace 
..and France is unwilling to let the svstem 
..go, but they have had I comSsston coS^ 
..pondmg to om- Royal CommiZn? whicK 
..given most unequivocal condemnation of thi 
"f^^J-^'^ ^^ ^^°'^ intellectual opinton of 
Fr^ce is agamst it, as well as all the strongest 
..medical opinion in France. As for Oie fS 

"t^in M^'r "° °"^ ^ ^ken more sSly 
" ?n ^ffl^- Clemenceau. Twelve years ago he was 
"Zf'u ^ ¥"^^1^' of tl^e Interior and there! 
"mtem fnl^n'^"^,^" administration oflws 
"hf SrrS To °l^^ ""ost eloquent speeches, 
ne rererred to the appallmg procession of 


misery, of girls of 15 or 16 and thereabouts, 
who pass under the control of the police. lean 

II only record,' he says, 'our absolute failure t« 
carry out that charge, although in attempting 
to carry it out my Department has recourse to 
practices which are contrary to the laws and to 

'the very principles of all humane govern- 

The medical testimony as to the failure of 

regulated houses is as complete as possible. 

The leading French specialist. Dr. Foumier, 

said: 'We have had the perfection of this 

system, as perfect as it can be made, for nearly 

^^ a century; and what is the result ? The result 

IS that syphilis abounds and super-abounds 

among us to-day.' He spoke of Paris; and 

Pans has been, to a large extent, the place 

where people have gone to study syphilis. 

The expenence of the British army is that after 

"the Contagious Diseases Acts were repealed 

the percentage of disease fell steadily and 

^ contmuously during the next thirty years. We 

"believe it is falling still in the army; and it 

"is conclusively proved that the Acts in Eng- 

"land did nothing to benefit the health of the 

army. And then we hear that it is better to 

have 'clean women' in these houses, as the 

„ynder Secretary for War said the other night. 

Dr. Blaschko, who was one of the chief 

Exu-opean authorities on this subject, had been 

faced with this problem in the German army; 

and what he said was this. He thought, if 

"there could be very careful tests, taking hours 

each time, of ail the women concerned, per- 

_haps syphilis might be pre\'ented; but as far 

as the other disease, gonorrhoea, is concerned, 

not even a daily examination of the most 

careful description can give any security at all."' 

' Tlie Shield, July 1918, pp. 54-55. 


In the report of the proceedings of this important 
meeting, "The Shield" also quotes Miss Maude Royden 
as saying: — 

..J "Here is a description given by a French 
doctor, who was himself an official connected 
with the administration of this system. He is 
a man who is employed under the system, and 

,,who defraided it, and this is what he says: 
The obligation to this medical examination 

_ 18 prodigiously degrading, debasing and ter- 

_ nble. The system regularises and legitimises 
the sorrowful industry of the prostitute. It 

; IS, in fact, the sinister stroke by which a 
woman is cut oS from society; after which she 
Mases to belong to herself and becomes the 
chattel or thing of the administration.' 
Another writes: 'The inscription of the 
woman s name is a purely administrative act. 
Nevertheless does it inflict on the woman 
a patent jf infamy and d^radation, and 
exercises a disastrous and fatal influence on her 
after-We.' Another says: 'The girl of the ' 

^^ brothel is the type par excellence of the public 
woman. She is the modem slave, who has 
become the tool of the brothel keeper and the 

'property of the public'."' 

In a pamphlet entitied "Regulated Vice and the 
Traffic m Women," published by the EngUsh Moral'and 
Social Hygiene Association, W. J. Payling Wright, B.A., 
presente a forceful account of the operation of various 
pohaes which he has studied in many different countries. 
Mr.iWnght presents to the English public a discussion 
of the vanous policies which are now being considered 
m Montreal. He begins with regulation, saying:— 

^^ "What, then, is Regulationism, if we may 
com an equivalent for the French Regle- 

^^ mentarisme? ' Regulationism ' is the policy of 
m aking a compact with evil— of licensing and 

■ The Shield, July 1918. p. 57. 


^^ regulating prostitution in the hope of obviating 
„«>n»e of Its most inconvenient features. The 
Regulationist : jaintains that since prostitution 
cannot be altogether suppressed it ought to be 
pemutted only under certain conditions im- 
posed by public authwities in the interest of 
jnibhc health or of public order. In Europe, 
the public health has been the main object* 
^^ Regulationism' has sought to protect it by 
oisunng that all women practicing prostitution 
rfiall be free from disease. In America, public 
OTder hM been the first consideration, and 
^^ Regulatiomsm' has attempted to restrict 
^^ prostitution to particular areas in the city. In 
either case it is assumed that vice is a neces- 
sity and that its evils can be minimised by 
suitable regulations." 

*i K? P^??raph headed "Regulation impUes Sanc- 
tion, Mr. Wnglit says:— 

^^ "Naturally, the upholders of this poUcy 
are eager to explain that Regulation does not 
^ mvolve approval or even toleration. But their 
^ contention fails them. Conditional prohibition 
18 practical permission, provided that the con- 
ditions are observed." 

Further Arguments 'Against Brothek 

In summing up his argument against Regulationim. 
Mr. Wright says: — 

^^ "Regulationism sanctions immorality in 
pie tempted man, saps the power of resistance 
m the tempted woman and girl, and generates 
m the public and in the official mind a moral 
temperament which regards prostitution and 
those who exploit it as normal, natural, and 
lawful constituents of a well-ordered com- 


"nZ7^ nwral temperament generated by 
RegulatiMusm-this tendency to regard via 

"Mi?^ where prostitutes are 'barracked* in 

"SK".' T^ ^'^ 'segregated areas.' The 

-r!!?^^'^ ^°"* ?^ regarded as anestabUshed 

and whotesorne mstitution. The proprietor 

'•^L^^tT-'"'': ^ "^^ "'"tbe re- 
'•S!S^' » J inmates are his property and 

"i^K?- We cannot injure establishmente 
'Si authorized and in which so much 18 mvested.' 'In order to prociue 
.women they (the proprietors) have often to 
..make great sacr^as of money.' These are 
"^ Fnl&^,?^ ^^^^ °®<^8. quoted in 
"^ 99R^/^^^''^ P*P" ("5 of 1881. 
..pp. 228 and 150). Such perversion of language 
..argues smula- perveraon of thought If 
"£!SSJ^^°" "ut 'sacrifice,' rescue must be 
"T^^^vS^^^i '^ «al against the 
-to^biHty'^""'" '''"^ ^ peychological 

"af '2^ ^4?. " ^"^ measure explains what 
"IL« ^} may seem a paradox, that 
"fifc ^^°^}u^°\ "^ 'Insulated,' the traf- 
..fickare find their best markets and readiest 
..purdMsers. The licensed brothel-keeper is 
"^^*i° ^ procurer, and the police aVex- 
"Sii!13^?^P'''^' ?°ndoning procuration 
•Wt.^f*2P|."*^?°?°^^<»-<'ffence8 which are 
"ff " ''y aU the penal codes of Christen- 

Mr. Wright goes on to say :— 

"h„Lk;; •• 1^^,''*=^°^ brothels, 'Red 
•'i^^i Z^^'^' ^^ commercialized vice' are 
"W I!?'.^^ temptation becomes overwhelm- and the demoralization complete. The 
obvious conclusion is that whenever an oflScer 


"hiJ&J'J^^'S^r^ Regulation requires 
..hjn-todevtate ftom the beaten track of law 
"SlsiS^^l- !* » .mentally and moraUy 
"S „/*^= ,^ lo«» his way and sinks in tl» 
..5^ "^a ^al?f position. In such draim- 
stances imphcit trust in him as an agent 
^ fe Mippressing the traffic would be egn^ous 

"™ ".'Regulationism' does more than foster a 

pubUc t^Mmwi and an official mentality that 

^favours the Write Slave Traffic. It protects 

the market and provides the buyera. 
•<f™™ri**°"'^ brothel-kceping-like other 
"^^? ""l^^erce-is competitive. Brothels 
compete with one another and with 'clan- 
^ destme prostitution. i.e., with the large mass 
"»L^ "it P"»t't"^'on which succeeds in 
^^evadmg the regulations. Their success de- 
^ wnds on their attractiveness, and their attrac- 
.. ^veneM depends on their abUity to secure a con- 

"£S^"?°*^y ^? ^^^^ are always on the 
lookout for new inmates. In 1855, that great 
"?S?*^' Parent-Duchatelet. wrote of tihe 
^^ typical keeper: 'The mistress of a brothel is 
, djrays on the track of young girls.' (Une 
"&r "^^° estaiapistedesjeunes 

Registration of Prostitutes 

Hi«r„^!?!*f'^°®^? o ^ discussion of Regulation we must 
Ascuss the form of Regulation which calls for a syst^ bf 
RegisliaUon or Inscription of prostitutes for mSiS 
«ammation although so far as is knowTuiis haTSS 
been sOTously considered in Montreal. In some Euro- 
peanaties prostitutes are inscribed either compulsorily 
or voluntanly.-^nipulsorily after arrest and coSwS 
and voluntarily if over 21 yeare of aee Inscriherf n^ 
rtitutes are required to rW reSrly to mecuS 


Registration Alwayt Incomplete 
y^ Dr. Flexner says in regard to the system of inscrip. 


Paris probably include haSm<J|*bS^°i 


,,thenmiinum inscription is barely 5%rA8 
"^^ *° a registration of 225 in Ro^^e thi 
..Pohce records show 5,000 womoT^de? 

"aI^u i ^.^ ^°»nen were inscribed at 
.Munich; during the same year. Oie mU^ 

"s^itutt'?l!?.^f°^. 2.076 a^tLe^';^! • 
••5*u *"^ ®?">hnent was thus less than 7^ 
..of ^of actuaUy known.^and OiwWm,^ 
,.im ofthe whole; in 1911 (iS mS)^S 

"ll^H^^^ "^"^' 2.574 'clandS4 We 
Forcible Inscription Condemns Women for Life 

.-ngfJl^^urope. pp. 142-3. 


..^u 5" ^dMCUi^ten of the nature of pro- 
..•^tution indicated that it is frequenUy only a 
phase .through which thousands of women pass; 
their mdividual mterast and the interestsof 
«'°^*?..'?*>'^ *•"* «very facility for exit 
and obhvion should be funjished. Regulation 
does precisely the reverse: it brands the 
■carfet letter upon the woman's forehead , . . 
SlKJuld she break, or be accused of break- 
ing, the stipulations to which she is now 
cpmpulsonly subordinated, she must accept 
« -^uP*."^**** imposed by the bureau chief 
wiUiout protest. Utter helplessness is her lot; 
and that too amid conditions that conspire 
to bring about not improvement but further 
degradation. For the accessories to Paris re- 
gulation, the depot at police headquarters, the 
hospital and prison at St. Lazare are dieer 
mirvivals mto our day of the barbarous 
dungeons of the middle ages. Whoso enters 

.. v*^ Pl?y ■* '^ *i^ t™th to leave all hope 
behind. ' 

Voluntary Inscription a Failure 

The failure of voluntary inscription is described bv 
Ur. rlexner: — 

„ "^ *i^ °*^ hand, as I have said, if in- 
scnption 18 voluntary, the whole thing goes to 
pieces. The size of the enrolment at Bremen, 
Stuttgart and Munich, where the girl decides 
for hersdf, is absurdly small. The induce- 
mente offered are very substantial, for if a 
woman complies with the regulations the police 
guarantee her the unhampered prosecution of 
her busmess. Yet even so, a vestige of sur- 
viving decency intervenes to keep far the 
greater number from voluntarily branding 

' Pmtitutian in Enrope, pp. 149 and 151. 


"towS ''Sllv^Ss.^ out of 1.574 enrobnentt. 
"in IMR* ^^ ^ '^ voluntary; out of 737^ 
in i5«8, only 36 were voluntary."' 

Street Conditiona Not Improved 

eanSS."?^^^'' ?*^ °^ inscription for medical 
wminatjon and police supervision is advocated S^ 

D^F^"^^^ '^''^^ °'''"'y st«ets!of thS: 

..j» "?" .'^?^ to street order, regulation rbv 
..uiscnption) is. therefore, in my^Xnent a 
..^"«^«J}ot a help, for it is at wSS itt 

"SS fhi''^ °^^^- RegulaUon is asked f^ 
,, that Uie women may be kept under control — 
,.g«s. I .8 arsued they wiU^er-nL^tTsS'ts. 
"^^ ^er control, they must be permitted to 

"Th^rJ^ ''^^'' ^ ^ ^y- niponsibte to 

"£ oteLflf*™^**«>'J»ow can rthers. not 

so obh^ted. be prevented ? Qw,. 

•'h^f^^ "Tf^^ °^ f«»«»e8 streete M 
^ free from scandal, as the streets of Amsterdam. 
..^S^^; «°d Liverpool-all non-regS 

No Sanitary Efficacy 
puuuc om^, let us turn to his arguments in repaid tn th*. 

Mlr^S^-™""^" °^ '"""'^ in^tSi^^' 

"j^ "^^^l^^ity previously commented uDon 

'•^^^■^ ^"? '^Kulation prevailsllS^ 

respect to its samtary details. Between thi. 

__medic' side, there is perhaps an even great^ 

"discrepancy than between the wont and the 
"best systems on the side (rf poike methods. 
"Thus far experience has worker^ out no ac- 
"cepted sanitwy model."' 

Dr. Flexner gives a detailed portrayal of the methods 
of examination of inscribed prostitutes in several cities, 
none of which did he find commendable, owing to the 
hurried examination, lack oi facilities, low standards of 
sanitary precautions and lack of care in dismissing cases 
after a short period of hospital treatment, stating:— 

"The utter baselessness of any confidence 
"placed by the patron on the fact of medical 
"uiq)ection is thus obvious: inspected women 
"may not only be diseased at the moment they 
"are sent to the streeU and bordells to do 
"business as sound,— but, as we shall also see, 
"if found diseased, they are, as a rule, even 
"after treatment allowed to return to their 
"avocation while still highly dangoous. But 
"aride from such variations, the clinical meihou 
"is utterly incompetent to detect any con- 
"aderable portion of infectious duease." 

In a footnote appended here. Dr. Flexner says:— 

"Though this hock deals only with pro- 
"stitution in Europe, I venture for the purpose 
"of conclusively establishing the usdessness of 
"the clinical method to refer to the researches 
"of Dr. ArchibaW McNeil of New York City. 
"Of 647 girls examined, 20.56% had clinical 
"manifestations of disease; of 46i6 of these same 
"girls, microscopic and other tests showed 
"89.3% to be venereally infected. See Knee- 
"land, 'Commercialized Prostitution in New 
"York City'."' 

■ Pnatitutian in Europe p. 206. 
' Ibid. pp. 23M1. 

Volume of Proatitvt Um May Be Enlarged 

In nunining up, Dr. Flexner layt:— 

"I have thus far dealt with regiitered 

proetitutum alone: in reference to it, I believe 
"we are justified in asserting that the numbers 
" treated have nowhere been relatively large and 
"that the nwthods of conducting the examina- 
"tions and their actual working greatly reduce . 
"even the apparent efficacy of the system. In 

Stockholm it has been calculated that three- 
' fourths of the disease current escapes de- 
" tection. It is therefore an incontrovertible fact 
" that only a small part of the disease in existence 

among inscribed women has been isolated and 
"that these diseased women have been dis- 
I] charged before they are very much safer: to 
"consequence of which, men consorting with 
"medically inspected proetitutes are the victims 
]'of misplaced confidence. If, then, regulation, 
^^ on account of the general attitude it encourages 

and on account of the feeling of Kicority it must 
"logically create, has at all enla-^ed the volume 

pf irregular intercourse, it has operated to 
"increase, not to decrease, Uie volume of ven- 
"ereal disease."' 

Regulation Losing Ground 

Dr. Flexner then pdnts out that regulation has lost 
ground: — 

"For the reasons just summarized, regula- 
"tion has'lost and is still rapidly losing gnnind. 
" As recently as a quarter of a century ago it was 
"in vogue throughout the Continent of Europe; 
"in the seventies it enjoyed a brief currency in 
I Great Britain as well. It is decaying in 
I France where, of 695 communes having over 
"5 ,000 inhabitants, it has entirely disappeared 

■ Prottitution in Eun^e, p. 240. 

from 250 and practically from many others. 
In Germany, of 162 cities, 48 have dispensed 
„with It, while it is moribmid in others. In 
Switzerland it survives only in Geneva; it has 
been wholly abandoned in Denmark, Norway 
and Great Britain. A special commission has 
recommended its total abolition in France; 
and a smular body in Sweden, far from unani- 
mous at the start, has unanimously come to 
the same conclusion."' 

Contagious Diseases Acts 

A form of regulation was tried in England under the 
80-called "Contagious Diseases Acts," passed in 1866 
and 1869, and later repealed after tremendous airitation 
m 1886. In "The World's Social Evil," by Wm. Bur- 
gess, a history of the operation and repeal of these laws 
IS given. Mr. Burgess says: — 

"The acts, which were now known as the 
^"Contagious Diseases Acts, 1866-69,' were in 
^^ operation in 18 military stations and naval 
"ports in the southern part of England and 

"Each district in which the Acts were 

"operative was equipped, at public expense, with 

_^ hospital wards for the medical examination and 

"treatment of women and girls; and special 

pohce detectives, dressed in plain clothes, 

under the direction of the military and naval 

"authorities, were appointed. The sole busi- 

||ness of the police detectives was to bring all 

I women, or girls, whom they suspected, or who 

jvere living in circumstances of temptation, 

mto the net, to be regularly, officially and 

systematically inspected by medical men . . " 

' Prostitution in Europe, p. 266. 



Act« Condemned and Repealed 

"When the firs-, -f tiiese Acts was passed, 
''in 1864, the 'Entish Mcdi< -\ Journal' charac- 
"terized it as the gro&sef;/. violation of the 
"liberty of the siibiect that iiad ever been pro- 
" posed to a British Pailiament— an act which 
"reduced women to the condition of mere ani- 

Mr. Burgess then discusses the condemnation 
these Acts by various people as being 

"a violation of a fundamental principle of the 

as having 

"only one accused in a double act"; 

and that 

^Mt ignored a most important principle of 

"British law, viz.: that an accused person is 

regarded as innocent until proven guilty."' 

These laws were finally repealed after a most sen- 
Mtional campaign in which Lord Shaftesbury, John 
Stuart Mill, Mrs. Josephine Butler, Harriet Martineau, 
and other prominent people took part. 

"Meantime the agitation had so fully en- 

"tered into politics that at the general election 

of that same year (1885), 257 candidates were 

elected who were definitely pledged to vote for 

"repeal of the Contagious Diseases Acts."' 

Thus ended England's attempt at Regulation. 

Less Disease Since Repeal 

We find an interesting comment on the resulte of 
the repeal of these Acte in "Social Hygiene," January 
1917^ an article by Mr. Van Walsem, inqiector of the 

' The World'* Social Evil, pp. 83.85. 
' Ibid, p. 85 
' Ibid., p. 115. 


government office for the suppression of the traffic of 
women m the Dutch East Indies. Mr. Van Walsm 
makes a comparison between England and Fiance in 
coimection inth the subject of regulation. He takes the 
aSTS^s •- ^ ^^ Registrar General in England 


''deaths at all ages as caused by venereal dis- 
eases per one miUion (1.000,000) Uving at that 

that in 

II a period of twenty years after the Contagious 
"1886^I^d 1907^"^ aboUshed, that is between 
there was a fall 

"from 92 to 58, i.e., 37%." 

I'deaUis from (hereditary) venereal diseases of 
children under one year old per 100,000 living 
at that age 

a fall 

"from 116 to 71, i.e., 39%"; 
and among 

''candidates for recruitment, refused on account 
of syphihs, per 10,000 ofifering for enlistment" 

"from 82 to 18, i.e., 78%." 

Mr. Van Walsem goes on to say:— 

"in other words the disease has steadily dimin- 
ished without regulation." 

Problem in France Unsolved 

„ ''On the other hand in France with its 

^elaborate system the disease had apparently 

mcreased. At the International Congress of 


||Medicine, held in London, in 1913, a Dauer was 
presented by Prof. Ernest Gauch^? ZfS. 

„Goag^t, both of Paris, on 'The Dangeraof 
SypMis and the Question of State Sro?. 

"h«wiT2^'*^^— "'?T'^*^™Portant,forhe 

"Paris ^^k^T',?^ •''^ °^ syphilography in 

"1^ ^]^ foUowing sentences are worth 

ftoting: The greatness and the difficulty of the 

^ blems have been solved, at least in Fran-x 
, Regulation which exists in France and other 

"f^^ fT^u* ^"^^ ^^ program. Un- 
fortunately the practical difficulty is far from 
., the Uieoreti^ ideal. The majority of syphS" 
"^&yT'^ Philanthropists .... op^ it 

••r,.i!7^ ^'^^ f''*^ Parliamentary Com- 
^ msfflon and the International Congi^, at 
^Brussels, amved at conclusions unfavorable 

to admmistrative regulations and to the 

'pohce des moeurs'."' 

Regulation Condemned by Chicago Committee 

find ^!'!?{;^«'?'^ ^^ .discussion of Regulation, we shaU 
find much of interest m a pamphlet, "Control of V^ 
Conditions m European Cities," pubUshed by order S 
ftu*^w^ ^^°l °^ "^ City «f Chicago in D^Sb^; 
tliVr^^ "^f.^^^ ^ "^^POrt of obser^ations^^ bv 
two Chicago aldennen, who were sent abrrad to iLke 
observations on the control of prostitution in ceS 
European aties. In this report to the Mayor ofChiS 
^\ZT- '" th^i^ormaUrK dS: 

" iJT^^ tJ^u^"^ problem of Chicago was be- 

"J^i^ia^* .^P™«' ^ European system of 
R egulation was much vaunted, frequenUy by 

' "SodiU Hygiene," Januuy 1917, voL III, No. 1. pp. UO-L 

"intelligent buanees and professional men. 
"The contention was that Chicago's present 
"method of repression or suppression was 
"wron^ in prinaple and practice and that re- 
"gulation with strict police and medical super- 
" vision was the intelligent solution of the 
"problem, and that the entire subject was 
"handled in a satisfactory maimer abroad. 

"We may say at this point that our obser- 
"vations in Europe strengthen our belief that 
"the recognition of prostitution by the author- 
" ities as a necessary evil is wrong and that regu- 
"lation and supervision are not the proper 
"remedies to apply. Further, we may suggest 
"that the people who extol the European 
"system of controlling the social evil as a rule 
"are not familiar witili the conditions as they 
" truly exist. Referring to conditions in Chicago, 
"we feel that we are now on the right track in 
"meeting this great problem. Since our visit to 
"Europe we are more than ever convinced that 
"our present policy (repression) is a most 
"decided step in Uie progress of order and 
"decency and that to again return to our old 
"time system of segregation (?), even with most 
"approved police or sanitary regulation would 
"be most deplorable and decidedly retrogres- 


Another form of regulation of vice which has 
been discussed as a possibility for Montreal, is that of 
segregation. S^[regation may be briefly defined as the 
policy of attempting to confine houses of prostitution 
to one or more localities within which official action will 
not be taken against such houses or their proprietors and 
inmates, provided prescribed regulations are observed. 
Let us again quote from Mr. Wright in his chapter on 
Segregation in the pamphlet formerly alluded to: 


Definition of Segregation 

^^ "Segregation is the aggregation or concen- 
tration of debauchery in one or more streets or 
'•quarters of a city. It is enforced— or rather 
"the attempt has often been made to enforce 
II it — by municipal ordinances or police regula- 
"tions, usually by prescribing certain limits 
"outside of which prostitution is forbidden. 
II It may or may not accompany other methods 
II of Regulation. Paris for instance has no Se- 
"gregation. Brussels has abandoned it. It 
"survives in Hamburg, Bremen, anc ^ertain 
II other German cities. Most large cities m the 
"United States have experimented with it— 
"not entirely to their satisfaction— though it 
||8till persists in many (in 1911). In America 
II these areas are known as 'Red Light Dis- 
"tricts," from the circumstance that in them red 
"lamps are aflSxed to brothels as a sign of their 

II character The fact that in every large 

||centre of population there is a certain pro- 
" portion of people with immoral propensities 
"cannot be denied. There is also a proportion 
"addicted to strong drink, but what legislator 
"in his senses would 'segregate' drunkenness, 
I.e., allow drink, its sale and consumption to 
"run riot in certain streets, provided that there 
"was sobriety elsewhere?"' 

Telephone Makes Segregation Ineffective 

Mr. Wright brings out a further point against the 
theory of segregation, which is borne out by our own 
experience in Montreal: that the telephone makes it 
absolutely impossible to keep all houses of prostitution 
within bounds. Mr. Wright says:— 

"Segregation does not segregate in America. 
In the Umted States the telephone has, for one 

' "Regulated Vice and the Traffic in Womea" pp. 16-19. 

thing, been too much for the police, as will be 
"seen from the following passage taken from the 
"fourth annual report of the Police Commissioner 
"—Stephen J. O'Meara— of Boston. 

" The most important instrumentality in the 
"change which for good or for evil has taken 
"place in the business of vice is the telephone, 
"with tile modem system of operation which 
" throws its use open not only to subscribers but 
"to the whole public. The 'telephone house,' 
" as it has come to be known — and in most cases 
"it is but an apartment — is practically an ex- 
" change, in which the tenant, without keeping 
"women in the place, fills orders, so to speak; 
"and even when the police become suspicious 
"and arrive with a liquor search warrant, which 
"is their only legal and practicable means of 
"securing entrance, they usually find nothing 
"incriminating on the premises. A person 
"carrying on the business in this way receives 
" messages by telephone from men, and has at her 
"call numbers of women and girls who use the 
"telephone at stated times to learn whether 
"or not they are wanted.' "' 

Segregation Failed in Chicago 

Mr. Wright, who wrote in 1911 before the cities 
mentioned had done away with their segregated dis- 
tricts, quotes extensively from experience in Chicago, 
Baltimore, and Des Moines, as follows:— 

"Chicago is famous for its 'Red Light 
'I Districts,' which are among the great sights of 
"the dty. The Chicago Vice Commission says 
"in its elaborate report on 'The Social Evil of 
';Chicago' (1911) (p. 145):— 'The evU of pro- 
Institution finds its most acute expression in 
"Chicago in the following ways: In reco^ised 

■ Regulated Vice and the Traffic in Women, pp. 20-21. 


"houses in so-called restricted districts, in semi- 
"recognised flats in residential districts; in as- 
"signation hotels in restricted, residential and 
"business districts; in rear rooms of saloons, in 
"assignation moms over saloons in restricted, 
"residential and business districts and on the 
"street in restricted, residential and business 
"districts." In short, segregation has been a 
"failure in Chicago. Prostitution has pervaded 
"the dty.' 

"The City of Des Moines (Iowa), has 
II abandoned segregation. Of this dty a Com- 
"mittee appointed to study immoral conditions 
"in Baltimore, reported thus: 'The Assistant 
"Chief of Police (of Des Moines), an officer of 
"high character— makes the following state- 
"ment: — "It is not generally known to persons 
"outside of the police department that in the 
''days of the 'Red Light' district, when it was 
"commonly believed that lewd women were 
"segregated, not more than 15 per cent of the 
"traffic was really carried on in the district. 
"Everywhere in the dty were disorderly houses. 
"It was impossible to control them. The best 
"evidence of the decrease in business is the fact 
"that complaints from the residence districts 
"have decreased at least 85 per cent".' 

" Similar evidence could be multiplied. But 
"enough has been given to prove tiiat just as 
"Regulation cannot regulate, Segregation can- 
"not segregate."' 

"Speaking of Minneapolis, the Vice Commis- 
"sion's Report for that dty says:- - 
"The residents of the Sixth Ward (a segregated 
"district), found it diflScult for the most respect- 
"able women to appear even in the street cars 

I Renilatcd Vice and the Traffic in Women, p. 21. 


near this dwtnct at night without being sub- 
jnitt^ to insult by rowdies and men half- 
mtoxicated. In the district itself one of the 
most notorious houses was adjacent to a large 
..?mH "".apartment buUding in which about 
150 famihMm very moderate circumstances 
dwelt; withm half a block of one of these 
resOTts was the only vacant lot in the neigh- 
borhood upon which children could play and 
frequentiy from 75 to 100 chUdren woud be 
playing upon that lot."' 

Segregation Advertises Vice 

vice. Mr'w^ht^Ss:-^''""" *""" ^ ^''^^"'^ 

•••* ','J^^ area thus devoted to vice often gains to 
iteelf notoriety asone of the showplaces or siehts 
of the aty. 

..*u ".Not only the deUberately immoral, but 
the inquisitive, the thoughUess and the idle 
seek It out. It serves as an advertisement of 

What the Chicago Vice Commission has 
so weU said of its own segregated area is 
true of others:— 'The chief advertising, how- 

, ever, is the district itself. The lighted street, 
the sound of music, the shrill cries and sug- 

_ gestive son^ of the inmates and entertainers, 
all of these features tend to bring the business 
to the attention of the public and to spread 
the news to other towns and cities.' " 

farv^r tf "^^' ''V°^ ?"■•• ^"al<l R- Hooper. Secre- 
taiy^of^the Maryland Soaety of Social Hygiene, as 

■ Regulated Vice and the Traffic in Women, p. 24. 

"'Our youths are not so ignorant of con- 
"ditions in the dty as raaay parents fondly 

"suppose Drinkuig is encouraged, 

"and monetary considerations compel the wo- 
"men to urge the boj- to go beyond the limit his 
"sober judgment would set upon his acts. This 
"applies particuli^ly to boys of better classes, 
"those who have money to spend. The other 
"great class of boys and men who have little 
"money to spend must patronise prostitutes 
"of the lower strata, or what is probably more 
"commonly the case, must depend for their 
"satisfaction upon the seduction of girls who, 
"for the sake of entertainment and companion- 
"ship, ultimately pay the price of their virtue. 
||This class of boys and men justify their action 
"on the ground that extra-marital sexual in- 
"dulgence is not wrong, since the commimity 
"not only tolerates public houses for those who 
"are able to pay, but purposes to insure safety 
"from robbery, exposure, and blackmail by the 
"most efficient pohce supervision.' 

"Other boys, however, are sent into tempta- 
"tion. Newsboys, delivery boys, messenger 
"boys are compelled to frequent 'Red Light' 
"districts in the ordinary course of their occupa- 

"Add to this that children are bom and 
"bred in such districts, familiarised from in- 
" fancy in the worst possible way with the 
"knowledge of evil. 

" . . . . Without endorsing all that has 
" been written as to huge vested interests in vice 
"in American cities, and without contending 
"that Segregation is the only factor in the 
II creation of such interests, enough has been 
I' said to justify the obvious inference that in 
"'R»4 Light' districts many persons, making 
II their profit out of vice and out of the con- 
" sumption of liquor that accompanies it, are 

"directly concerned in promoting and per- 
"petuating ImmaHlity. •• ~ ijw 

"tS^ !? **" ^*^ encourages the White Save 
Traffic by providing a safe market for the vic- 
"i?™: "'"'over, tiiat it demoralises the police, 
blunts their moral faculties, and exposes them 
to the most potent forms of temptation. In 
thwe rrapects Segr^^tion is perhaps the 
worst and most dangerous form of Regulation. 
In a district given up to vice, what influence 
is there to strengthen the police against the 
temptaUons that surround them ? In such a 
district where can a trapped girl turn for suc- 
cor or rescue ? 

Vice Commissions i>pnosed to Segregation 

.. **"^u ^^ ""^ °^ ^^ paper reference has 
often been made to the reports of 'Vice Com- 
missions and other Committees appointed by 
l^ge cities in the United States for the purpose 
of mvestigating the Social EvU. It u note- 
worthy aiat these Commissions did not ap- 
proach Oie question with minds prejudiced 
against the pohcy of Segr^^tion. Onthecon- 
t^, to ate one example, the great majority 

^^ of the members of the MinneapoSs Commission 
were at the outset in favor of some s-stem of 
regulation or segregation, but in the aid came 
unmunously to the opposite opinion. Similar- 

,.l' ^"''essor Seligman informs us that when 

,^the Committee of Fifteen,'* which was ao- 
pomted for the City of New York and of whiS 
he himself was a member, came together. 

^_ knowmg very Uttle about it— just about as 
much or as little as does the ordinary man or 

^ woman— the great majority were in favor 
_of regulation 'on the principle that it could do 

• Later called the "Conunittee of Fourteen." 



"no harm and might do some good.' After pro- 
"l(Riged study the Committee came unanimous- 
"ly to the conclusion that Regulation was inad- 
"visable and inadmissible; and reported that 
"prostitution 'must not be segregated in sepa- 
"rate quarters of the city'. 

"Canadian experience points in the same 
"direction. For about a year and a half, ending 
"January Ist, 1911, the City of Winnipeg, by 
"official action, attempted to segregate its dis- 
" orderly houses. This, of course, it had no le^ 
"right to do, and the grave abusen, the flaunting 
"of vice, the demoralizing infltitnce on child- 
"hood and youth, the exhibition of obscenity 
" and bestiality, led to such an outbr>.ak of public 
" criticism as called for official mvesti^ation under 
"Royal Commission, with the result that 
"Winnipeg has abandoned its policy of segrega- 

Let us quote Dr. Flexner on the subject of segrega- 

" . . . . Segregation in the sense of an 
"attempt to confine the prostitutes of a city or 
"even Oie majority of them to a single locality, 
"or even to a few definite localities is not under- 
" taken in any European city from Budapest to 
"Glasgow. Waiving all objections and assum- 
"ing plenary and summary police power such as 
"exists, it is obviously easier to mscribe them 
"than to confine them. If, as is the case, they 
"cannot be caught and inscribed, how are they 
" to be caught and segregated ? European cities, 
"having universally failed in the attempt to 
"inscribe prostitution, necessarily refrain from 
"any endeavour to segregate any considerable 
"part of it. 

" . . . . Segregation is therefore impracticable; 
"more than this, any attempt to bring it about 

■ Regulated Vice and the Traffic in Wonen, pp. 26-29. 

"^J^, ■'"Wniwd to be inadvittbl^ in ♦•- 

"the''nShKa:?!Ss3u^':^r^ -^ 
Japanese Oppose Segregation 

gregation; it ^ St^t ?S^*!2" *^?« against Se- 
Residents of OmL^ ^li^ Committee of Foreign 

"mrirf»n^o f u * '* '^ "°t confined to foreim 

and foreign support." *^ Chnstian 

The letter says in part:— 
"the'iStUeSow .^' the crucial moment of 


' Pnwitution in Europe, pp. 175-176. 


" 2^ "2^1?' *^<T^* °' Japane« young 

"Sii"'i.'^* """^^ ^ whole country 

..»ndtte whole cau«of anU-proetituUon^r?^ 

wnere. The iwueof the battle herp 

"of SS^^^ tmnendoudrtteSluS 

Of the social evil problem throughout Jaoan 

.,«id even outride of Japan. ^tCVe'fe^i 

'•C>^ "I J[fP«jdmK to the request of ^^ 
„^^._ Comnuttee to present this widi 


mercialiaid? Vit inifT®"?" *" suppression of Com- 

E^' "^^ '^^e.had an increasing aiiomitTknow-' 

Vice. Surveys 
A summary of this policy is given in "Social Hv 

Resulte "It ^^rJ^f^'^t-^l"^ Investigation^ 
?^-of J^ ^S. Vl^fcle^S:^ ^ 

"■S<».lHygia.."J,™„yl917,„, • Na 1. pp. 135^ 

History of Movement in U.S. 

,. "T™ y®**" '^ segregation was the ac- 
j»pted policy of vice control. Certain stock 
j-easons were given, munnurings of which 
are still heard here and there. Practically every 
large city in the United States had ite dis- 
trict. In fact, New York and Chicago had 
sflveral. To question segregation was to be 
branded either a fool or a fanatic. 
^^ "Since that day a remarkable change has 
taken place. Approximately two hundred 
,,"t»es, mcluding vutually every one over 100,- 
^^ 000 population, have closed their districts. Not 
the trace of one (much less several) is to be 
^ fmmd m New York or Chicago. The notorious 
„ . f "°ary Coast ' of San Francisco and arrogant 
^^ Storyville' of New Orleans are no more. It is 
a question of but a short time before every 
.awakened community in the United States 
follows suit. 

• '"Hiis is a significant change. Nwisitone 

brought on by military necessity. The few 
^^reniaming strongholds of vice were bdng 

shaken to their very foundations even before 
, *e United States entered the war. The War 

iJeiMUtment has simply taken the new order the flood tide and is making the most of it. 

The red light district is passing, never to 


,. "One naturally asks: 'Why the change?' 
There are a number of contributing causes, but 
severalstandoutunmistakably. Thepredeces- 
sors of the American Social Hygiene Assoda- 

^^ tion had for some time been preparing the way. 
Ixx:al societies were organized and American 

^^ communities were urged to make a serious study 
of vice conditions. With the co-oidination of 
these activitiies in the American Social Hygiene 
Association, a concerted program of action 


"along educational, medical, and law enforce- 
"ment lines was definitely launched and carried 
into effect. Another cause was the discovery 
"of the organism and the treatment for syphilis, 
" which showed the futility of medical inspection 
"and changed the attitude of the mediod pro- 
"fession. Still a third major cause was the 
"extensive studies made by the Bureau of Social 
"Hygiene of conditions first in New York City 
"and then in Europe. To European experience 
"American advocates of s^r^ation and regula- 
"tion were constantly pointing. The results of 
"the Bureau's researdies were both startling 
"and clarifying. They proved beyond dispute 
"that abrrad, — ^where police action is sum- 
mary and autocratic and not subject to 
"politics and popular control as here in the 
"United States, — ^regulation was an absolute 
'failure, and was being abandoned. As for 
"segregation, — it had long since been discarded. 
"As a result of and in connection with 
' these activities and studies, city after city in tins 
'United States instituted vice investi^ticms; 
'two score in less than a decade. Most of the 
'men appcnnted on these investigating bodies 
'held the then still-accepted theory of segrega- 
'ticHi, but without exception they finished tteir 
'labours with an absolute rev^sal of convic- 
"tion. The disclosures left no alternative. As 
'the facts became known, public opinion be- 
'gan to consolidate until toAlay the revdution 
"is complete. 

"What were the disclosures that caused 
'such a metamorphosis? Simply these: It 
'had become patent that segregation did 
'nothing that was claimed for it. On the con- 
'trary, conditions flagrant and intolerable had 
'come in its wake. S^regation had really never 
's^iregated. Regulation and medical inspec- 
'tion proved to be failures, and the district 

"ttI^S •^*^*, "^"^ °' venereal infection. 

•wL^** l^y ^"8°^' its traffic. ^ 
^.roJdtairt advertisement made vice more easy 

of acxess and provided a source of bS 
"S^S*'^ ^r 'JeF^^racy. Segi^ration 
•.^?J^?^ **^- P°''*=^ ^°''«' stimulated UlMal 
"^5 SL^'^ii?' "creased crime and debauch^, 

and fostered sexual perversion. •«-«^». 

"=.„,r£i^^ * *?*?.^ ^^^'^ indictment to give 
Myone pause! Similar indictments wei« ^. 

"S^iStf L^^ °*y "^9^^ "™t stubborn 
..e^o^ts of the established theory were 

••«^^ "'^ ^^5^ '^^"Ke arouses apprehen- 

^^But the details of a new policy were beinir 
^^ worked out. and the minor shades of apprdwih 
"«/^ !i:!ill?"° laid beside the major ifiantom 
"tl^F^^^ ^. ^ "^^ ""ler b^gaito ^ 
"rtSPLvJ.''^ .*?*'' undertaking an investiga- 
tion worthy ot the name abolished its dist^t. 
„J^9r,l»8^y.8onebacktoit. 'Once smashed 
this hne of evil strength is never rwMganised'."! 

The following dties carried out definite investiim 
tions up to 1916.. and as a result wereimi^^K 
closing their districu. A number of ^UiaSZ« 
smce held mvesti^tions. but the resSto aS^t^S 
ascertamable. TiS. list is given in Mr. Mayw's^dT 



Bay City 






New Yoric 
Portland, Maine 
Portland, Oregon 

• Sodal Hygi«w, vol. IV., No. 2. April 1918. pp. 197-189. 


Grand Rapids 



Kansas City, Mo. 



Little Rock 

Richmond, Va. 

St. Louis 





Mr. Mayer comments on this as follows:— 

" r "J^- ^°^ important result of the closing 
of distncte IS the changed status of com- 
jnerciahzed vice. In an 'open town' vice is 
either tolerated, regulated, or even legaJ%d. 
In other words, it is lodced upon as in some 
jvay necessary. Under such circumstances, 
.. }(}** M in the ambiguous position of being both 
^^ Illegal and quasi-legal at the same time, so that 
any approach to a consistent policy is im- 
possible, and a corrupted police force is 
^ inevitable. The abolition of the district clears 
the way for a constructive program, definitely 
puts the ban of social disapproval upon sexual 
fXMnmerce, brands it as ill^timate and forces 
It to stand in the same light as other (fences 
agamst the law, and crystallizes public senti- 
ment to back up persistent law enforcement 
and repression."' 

Repression in New York City 

v^J^t "P^^^°ce of a poUcy of repression in New 
r o H*?,*^ *» of interest to Montreal. The BuiBau 
of Social Hygiene published in November, 1916, a report 
OT conations in New York, at that date, in companson 
with 1912 and 1915. In the mtroduction to the Report 
It 18 said:— ^ ' 

^ , " The contrast is in the highest degree strik- 
ing and encouraging. Vice still exists; but its 

• Sodal Hygkne, vol. IV., No. 2, April, 1918, p. 200. 

"KSf -^J*? ^^y '«l"<»d. and the 
..dam^ caused has. been immensely SmhSl 
,,In 1912, proetitution was open, <ww^^ 

„a^;«Jve^dprosperous:inl§16 iU^S; 
dwwganued. precarious, unsuccessful. S 

"wSSTT^* •" *°^ ^ the statistic tlSt 
foUow; but, as a matter of fact, the i^ im 

"Sr"^'>/" greater than 'the sStlS 

Aw. A smgle example will make this pcSnt 

dear. There were 142 parlor houses in 1912- 

the pr«ent statement ^ 22. ^ Se fa~ 

"do^%^' "*" Pf loFh<"*8 ha^Sn m 

"5^ISn°^7^^ "^.^'^^t they were four 

"S.^ ^IJt this understates the achieve- 

"S^,'!21'™?^*^L they were notorious 

resorts, engaged m the active and open oro- 

secution of their shameless busta^. The 22 

«,&«™'TK'^^.«»tain less thai fifty 

..mmates. They are hard to find, stiU harder 

„to^y existence; before these pages leave the 
..prws. ev«y one of them wiuSb^havl 
„beaa snuffed out by the polia. The^ S 
•Wnt.^^°^ ?°T. ^•^«' 0^ vicious tlne- 

" Jh^,^; l!i^*"^f^' ^^ of P«nps- Thus, 
..though commeroahzed vice continuS in New 
York^t has been dealt a body blow. 

"n,™»^ ^^ -^i"; f^ achievement must be 
"^^? '^ I'l^y apportioned. Civic m- 
..^uzations, such as the Committee of Four- 
"Jhf™&!.J° ^ ,P«minently mentioned: 
.. the DMtact Attorney's ofllce and tiie Criminal 

"SKS'^„"^^yJ?y successive convictions 
pertormwi an admirable service. But the chief belongs to tiie Mayor* and to the S 
"Zt^?^ Poli«- For'tiuee ye^l^'^fe, 
"C^\l^-^^^^ "^ high-minded Police 
"SS^?'^'" has pursued a sound and con- 
_8istent pohcy, with aU die backing, moral mcI 

• John PiuToy Mitcbd. 


official, that the Mayor could bring to his 

support. The results are obvious; the police 

fOTce has steadily improved in morals and 

efficiency; a new standard of public decency 

"has been set and maintained. 

,., "Prostitution has been proved to be a 

I modifiable phenomenon.' Whether the city 

"has more of it or less of it depends very 

"largely upon the policy which the municipal 

'government pursues in dealing with it."' 

The Social Hygiene Bulletin, of January, 1918, says 
ui comment upon this report that John D. Rockefeller, 
Jr., recently made public the following statement with 
speaal reference to work done by the police of Mayor 
Mitchel's administration: 

^^ "During the last four years a vigorous 
J process of repression has gone on. The police 
"have carried on an unceasing warfare — sup- 
'' pressing arresting and prosecuting, wherever 
II evident of the violation of law could be 
"obtain In consequence, year by year since 
"1912, nmercialized prostitution ha. ^mi- 
nished both in volume and in inteusity. 
II Where it was once abundant, open, aggressive, 
"and shameless, it is now reduced in amount, 
"stealthy, unaggressive, and aftaid. The 
• " 'parlour house,' the most flagrant and destruc- 
"tive of all forms of prostitution, has been 
"completely suppressed in New York City. 
II Instead of the 2,000 resorts which carried on 
"an aggressive business in immorality five years 
"ago, there are now about 300, of which almost 
I all are living surreptitiously and indlectively. 
"Such prostitution as now exists in this city is 
"almost wholly an individual affair. As a 
"commercialized and organized business, it has 
"been practically wiped out." 

,a,c ^f*'"' "CmnmereiaJffled Pnirtitutiaa in New York Qty," No». 1, 
' itfio, pp. 1-2. 



ra) ™e.volume of PRosmimoti^ii^^^^^^^^ 

1»«2 19U I9te 1917 

ma uis-i9tu9u 


^^^Rw«*» Street-WalkMi Counted 

■iAad KoM Ha 

I AfH 

P-m^SJSS-'&Si^^rJn'"^ b«. tate, ft«„ , 

Results of Repression Elsewhere in U.S. 

The American Social Hygiene Association gives us 
tile following reports on the effects of repression in several 
American cities where a fdlow-up inv^dgation has been 
made to ascertain results. 

From the Buffalo (N.Y.) Federation of Churchea: 

" In December, 1914, the Buffalo Federation 

"ol Churdies began an investigation, which 

resulted in the sworn affidavits of private 

"detectives against about a dozen of the most 

"notorious houses in the so-called 'Tenderldn.' 

"A little more tiian a year has elapsed since 
"this woric was b^^un by the Federation. 105 
Inactions have been instituted. In 6 of these 
"the motion for an injunction has been denied. 
"77 permanent injunctions have beai granted. 
"The rest of the cases are pending. 

"A tour of the tenderloin today reveals a 
"situaticm wtmh by comparison with that of a 
"year ago is well-nigh incredible. The old- 
time houses are alent and give hardly a sign 
"of being occupied. Thirty of them are actually 
^'standing vacant. In a score of cases tenants 
"have been evicted by the owners; many houses 
' are offered for sale, and a dozen have been con- 
'verted into stores. 

"Police reports show that 35 proprietors, 

and probably 500 women, have left Buffalo, 

"aad 50 of the men who have lived upon the 

^^ olidting from windows is practically unknown, 
and even upon the streets it is comparatively 

From the Lexington (Ky.) Vust Report we find the 
foUowing statements received fhmi aties which had 
owed Uieir s^regated districts. From the Mayor's 
Office, Des Momes, Iowa, on May 11th. 1915, thoe is 
a letter which states: 

"When the new ci^mmiasion plan became 
effective in this dty, we had a so-called segre- 

"gated district, or rather two «• three districts. 

"A policy of strict sujmressian of this vice was at 
once ordered by the Mayor and Superintendent 
of PubUc Safety. This policy has been followed 
smce that time (April 1, 1908) and very few 
citizens would favor returning to the old plan. 

, "Then is still some prostitution in Des 
^ Momes, just as there are some sales of liquor 
|8uice the saloons are closed, but the evil has 
^ been reduced to a very small fraction of what 
^^ It was when we had the fine system and when a 
certain protection was given unfortunate 
women "who lived within the districts. At 
"that time there were more prostitutes scat- 
Jtoed throughout the readence districts than 
thoe are now. A careful survey of the con- 
Jditions in the dty was made a while ago by one 
of our most experienced cheers who served 
under both regimes. His report showed about 
one-fourth as many prostitutes in the dty as 
•there were when we had the red light dis- 

"The mmiber of arrests for prosecution 
^^is but a fraction of what it was before 1908, 
and when prostitution was driven out the 
"attending evils went also." 

,„,^The Mayor of Hamilton, Ohio, states in May, 
1915, the results of the order dosing the red light dis- 
trict which went into effect May, 1914: 

"The population of Hamilton is approxi- 
;'inately 40,000. We have abolished the segre- 
" gated district and all commercialized vice. 

It was argued that the abolition of com- 
' mercialized vice would create a condition 
|Vwhereby the young women of the city would 
" be unsafe on the streets. Such is not the case. 
"There has been no case of rape or anyUiing of 
"the kind called to our attention. 

"The order closing the vice district went 

mto effect May 1, 1914. From conversation 

with physicians I am informed that sexual 

II disease in the City of Hamilton has been 

"minimized and not increased as asserted 

"by opponents of the abolition program." 

The City of Lanca?ter, Pa., published a Second Re- 
port on Vice Conditions a year after adopting the policy 
of repression: 

"The estimated weekly number of 4,000 to 
I] 5,000 customers, or frequenters of these 
"resorts has, we believe, been reduced to 
"one or two hundred. 

"Fourteen madams have moved to other 
I' quarters in the city, and have in most cases 
"practically ceased business; eighteen more 
"have left the city. About 75 per cent of the 

|girls who were imnates of houses have also 
II left the city, some to go to their homes, 

some to enter legitimate business, and some 

(the larger part) to quarters, known and 

unknown, m other cities and towns. 

"Lancaster is no longer a 'wide-open' city, 
II nor its tolerated immorality such a flagrant 
"menace to the youth of the city as it was 
"only a little over a year ago, but the whole vice 

situation has been put upon an entirely new 
"1 :-. The laws are to be obeyed; commercial- 


respect, and in ™-: • ^"* '^'""UUy in this 

•ws given the Vice CnrnVniA "' ^- Trout, 

'nmUontopuiwieLHpnL. *i.°^ "^ <*eter- 
"of suppreMdOTrAiflK— "*^^ ^ same policy 
"the brt^^WeZSl » ^ ^^' chanK 

Pondence thixnigh ^ ™„p^''?^ ««»- 

private boxes Anrffto^"^ dehvery and 

:;conditi<Crihe^Uv^??„n!«> »y that via 

than It was a year ago." "^aner, morally, 

iibmai?T917:"^ '^""^ ^"»» Lancaster, ft.. 
"ChS;;^'^^t£'^iG..Twombly. D.D.. 

"Churchman.' ffiaTa.'Srr''^^ '" "^ 

"tember 11, 1916V>^ ^Ij^^ter on Sep- 

"charge and insS^Son?^*^ ^Ji^l^' ™ ^ 

::took occasion S"2yC ifLn'l^-^*"^ 
months since the ip^irT \ "^^ '^en five 

"Court had teen hrf^^r°^ ^^ <^ri™inal 

"and that 'in this tl^ Lancaster County 

"notable lack of ^rin.r^*''^^ had been a 

"and we Se to bf ?™L'J^f J" ^'^^ county, 



::^ are "« breeding p,.^ of vice and 

"SX til.*^v^ u« that there is, though 
at the tune of the vice cnwade it wMmrT 

"S'L^j^P^^^l^y pitted ttSX" 
.,152'^ wopJd be just the opposite and that O^ 
..closing of such resorts woSSmrana ^ ^ 

.For a number of years this dty hashL,^"t ortainlyundergoin? ^ SrifS 
"^*^*- ''^ •>" been cleared of (fivM^ 

oomSo^enfS?1he\e?^tk^p*«^' Washington 
^published VL'^Xna^S^H^ine^ 
wffiSon'V^ the effects oH^ SSLt 

"rJ!*^^i enforcenaent has been splendidly effi- 

"toudiS ^hl^Pf- ^ f'^y previously un- 
"SrtS ^^!^^°^ 9^. ^ restricted dS- 
"thfJSS-^* to diminish vice throughout 
"f^er SLnJr W^ians and cliSS*K 
lewer patients. Visitors in the citv find if 
ataost mipossible to locate pr^tuS. ' 

"fiom^v^f'^„^5 ^^^'^ ^""^ «> different 
"K Tth iStJTf^ inaugural celebra- 
"*».~ J respect to vice conditions that 

"WT^J T" "^ eitherTd h^d o 
"th^r ^°?5 cJean-up or learned of it after 

..^of the thoroughness of the anti^ 


"sudden aSJnSdJJS ft^^"*, ^ ^ 
.'.'abolition? I^norffiSSe'iffi*^ 

.'.-leanlS'u" to^^ir^^^^, £W ll^S 
"and to take all the^pn^f^ ^^u ""^onnation 
::a morals f^lttd^u^*^*^^' 

"on the groS^d oSrM'p^^i^°"*?''"a'^« 
"not invade aU^SS ^^,' ^^ '? '^°«» 

"has haXS'S'cJS^s S'.ijreTr ."^"^ 

Injunction and Abatement Law 

the '^^eflS'^^^i-^^^ofrepres^^, 
referred to, statMr«- '^^ ^"^ ^'^ '^n previously 


"In ^iu'^^y *^*^ «ate and tenitorv IM 

wiioiesaie cioeing of recognized houspo K"..t 

"tS^^- ****"* y^^ "» the United States 

Law Enforcement 
"«J1^?°^ '"*'' *^ unpreceder'<d gains has 

"sal^- ^» .^onnecting rooms and booths in 
"Sm^f' w ,''"™°«' supervision and i^Ja^ 
"ffljce nails, and motion picture theatres; tte 

-•^^S^r'^!^'^*- enforcement of ordinances 

"SSI!" ^^ fin™? system is being aboUahed 
..^ifSr^jPenalfes with pristSTsSSS 
mpwed. Tliepatnm.too.isbeginnbtttofS 
the pressure of aroused pubS?^ffi|:". 

Owners of Property Prosecuted 

perty^'l^sJr^n.^^'^T ^ ««.' ^^ °^" of Pn>- 
pcrty usea Dy commercialized vice inteivstii ia AtT 

"of 8tSSfnf^J[ partnership between citizens 
..? *?P™?8 and vice promotera evidenUy has 
..Its chief mcentive in the increased Sis rf 

"ST "^^^ ^^' Punx«S^f pr^^tTdo^ 
..Ample evidence that exorbitant md uS 
..matemterest is yielded on the capital invS 

. A mdam of a prosperous resort held a 10-year 
,.lea^ on a house, owned by a citizen of reS 

•'leS,tJ*'^ ""^"^^ ^^"« of this house to 
"&$!^'!!;^ ^^' "'*^ted to be le^ 
"Th^c fi'^ '^f annum, or $125 per month 

"Xd Lt^^S?*" P""'* ^ ^^ ownSCy 
DC said to be $541 per month."' 

In summing up, Mr. Kneeland says;— 

"The real estate agents and the hmkt^ra 
,.who lease and rent property for iZSl 
..purposes, with or without^ taowkdHf^ 

:SrygSfty^'"^"^ "^^ with^'r^^^ 



"the utm«t'''£:^7S*f" ««ducted ^^ 
"facts. ^^ *° ascertain the exact 

"of liouses of DrMtk„?L *^ S^!^ o^ owners 
"whe^prostitur^jra^de*- '""'*'«« 

"owrisin^eSS! ''"^*'"^" °^ 8"«ty 

:<^rmt£" cS^^f l:%P«™anent 

"«^ditiS^r^^^L^i?.^"^er investigate 

the courts ^d^L^^^^^ P°^ce and 

"opinion so tS? thT^ and promote public 

"successfuUy S wi°^ '^'"'^'^ ^suited 
"an injunctiOT wl^h IXf^^^'^ P"* ""^^r 
"long M they livrh^th»«.^l"^^^^ °" "»e™ as 

••r,»^\^^^'?^ 1° ">«* twenty-four cases', 
ruwe than sixty houses of prostitution ^e 

"h^^ the law and without thTn^'^f 

"^^^r^^- ^'=^'y ^ ^^k passerthat 
some such houses are not thus vacated. 

"fPHHS^L***® influence of the law has ex- 
tended to nany more houses and people than 
.are included in the above eightT^LsTf 
"&K ^ prostitution that have b^ st^P^ 
.doing business during the past year. M^ny 
have abandoned the businSs or refused to 

"r^!Lt°' •??*'?'"^ 't ^''^°"«1^ fear of twTC 
Therefore it is impossible to estimate exacUy 

law m Indianapolis. 

"»ffJJ'*^-^li'"^ °f the law which makes it 
effect ve is tiiat it reached tiie property owier 

"^ .". JS°^* °^ *« twenty-foiS^ sdteta- 
stituted tiie property owner was a party to 

..tile suit. Property owners and red estate 
agents are exti^emely sensitive about publicity 

..of the bad reputation of tiieir houses. For Sat 

"w'^'"^^i:"?t'*=^,t° **>« owner in most cases 
has been sufficient. ■ ^^ 

Sale of Liquor in Disorderly Houses 

«r« J^°*^" measure of repression which has come into 
prominence in the recommendation of^^M» Ida 
wmnusfflons is .tiie enforcement of laws proWbuL^ 
w^e of hquor m disorderly houses. TWs retotiS? be- 
tween prostitution and alcohol is discu^b^ Walter 
Clarke, Secretary of tiie AmericM^ ^ai h!;<J«„I 
Association, in "Social Hygie1i^.^X S^f_"y«'">« 

"u "^^ /^"t °f closing out liquor from 
___houses of prostitution 1^ been^xeS 

1 "i2?i H"*!'"*'!; »^- "••• Na 1, rmuary 1917 m, 137 iqa 

"ST^o '^ ** important, both as a source 
of income and as a stimulant to the busineMo? 

"?Z*' h?T'*^"' that whenhquorisexcffi^ 
"r^Z^ ^Sl^ °^ prostitution, the busing 

deoeases about one-half. The Chief of Pdke 
,.of Cincimiati stated in a peisonal conferenci 

wth the wnter that the removal of liquor from 
..the houses of prostitution in Cincinnati wm 

fouled by the closing of half of fSThou^f 
..pose remainmg are having great difiicultv 

"i^^Ut^Ir^^ Wisconsin Vice Commission 
m 1914 that, when liquor was closed out of her in Superior, her custom decrea^ 50%' 
Other cases confirm these statements." 

Education on Venereal Disease 

S2^ T^^inPr^^ "" ^^ neighborhood of™ 

an effective radius of the camp. ExoerienM 
:;ha8 proved that such districts ta tKdSty 

"faw.S.^f'i!^'?^**^'" ho* conducted, aii 
inevitably attended by unhappy consequei^ 
The only practical policy which pi^teSf 


."'^Li!?'^^***" *° V^ problem is the poUcy of 
abBolute repreaaon, and I am ctmfident that in 
,.t^ .this course the War Department has 
"S^ '^H; ^J^^ the best thought and 
^^practice whidi modem police experience has 
^^developed. This poUcy involves, of course, 
constant vigilance on the part of the poUce. 
irot only in ehminating regular houses of pro- 
stitution, but m checking the more or less 
jdandestute class that walks the streets and 
18 apt to frequent lodging houses and hotels." 

War Showed Civilian Conditions 

Qto* P^ campaign has b-en carried out by the United 

!!?!^«^"-5?^J?^* ^^■•"''^ssion on Training Ca^ 

*^^*'^J^*''.?^ ^^'^°^^ on law enforcement, venere^ 

disease education, and recreation. To quote from a 

gmphlet issued by the United States PubUc H^th 

Service. War on Venereal Disease to Continue":— 

..* • '^'S^ first to last the Government main- 

., *^!2f° .™ portion accepted by the best medical 

authority, viz..— that continence is entirely 

^compatible with health, and that irregular 

sex mtercourse with prostitutes is the most 

prohfic cause of venereal disease." 

The work of the commission bore fruit not only in a wide 
drarang up of the cities in the United Stat4 but also 
reacted on iia condition of the soldier himself. 

Continence Compatible With Health 

»«™,w;.^ fij^'^ \ ^^S^^ Foedick, in the "New 
Repubhc of November 30th, 1918. we read of the pro- 
gi^ime of the US War Department Commi^L*^!^ 
Homing Camp ActiviUes for combating prostitution 
and venereal diseases. Mr. Fosdick saysT— 


"It was founded on the proved principle 
"that sexual continence was not only possible 
I' for soldiers, but was also highly desirable from 
'the standpoint of physical efficiency, morals 
II and morale. Its chief features were education 
"of the men; repression of disorderly resorts; 
I' provision of healthful, interesting and con- 
||structive recreation; prophylaxis, or early 
" treatment, for men who had exposed themselves; 
"punishment for those exposed who failed to take 
"prophylaxis; and, finally, expert treatment for 
"those who either came into the army already 
"infected or broke through all the barriers set 
"up by the military authorities." 

Cost of Prostitution in Disease 

In discussing the enormous indirect cost of pro- 
stitution through venereal disease in civilian ' circles, 
Mr. George J. Kneeland says in "Commercialized 
Prostitution in New York":"-— 

" It needs no argument to show that the cost 
"of prostitution is enormously augmented by 

"disease But the reckoning would still 

"be incomplete, even if we knew the actual vol- 
"imie of syphilis, gonorrhoea andiChancre; ;for 
"there would remain to be included the reniote 
"effects, not less certainly due to venereal af- 
"fection, and even more fateful and costly than 
"the immediate manifestations,— paralysis, ster- 
"ility, miscarriage, deformity, degeneracy, in- 
" sanity,— curses that stretch 'even, unto the 
" third and fourth generations. ' Froni the effort 
"to translate such losses into dollars and cents, 
"the boldest calculator may well shrink; yet 
"they are a part,— a certain, inevitable part,— 
"of the cost of prostitution." 

Through the prominence of venereal tdiseases^as a 
problem the war has shown the nations.of the world not 

' p. 136. 


entitled "War ^V^^^'^^^ »S,? ''"^P^* 

"fi,J""* examination of draftees showed that 

"^T^i^ ^^^ °ne who contracted it after h* 

"Ttt TJ^ "^y- ^ ^ oneX^^Sed 
..!i^ i^anny. probably, was infectedtaS 

problem and a peace problem." ^^^ 

Venereal Disease Legislation 

lepsiJtion'S' liS4lS?KS^ '^\^'^' ^*^ 
wfth emphasis OT ^^h^i^^^ ^P*"^""^.**™*™* 

along tiiese linra^ S-vf?^' ?^ ^^ education 

and venereal diseaw^aT imMHfSSf^ Prostitution 

whatever attacKf at^totiS oSlr ^^^r^ -^ 
of Surteen indurf*^ = ™ifL "'^- The Committee 

catiem in re^rdto tSS? ^i?*^ campaign of edu- 
of commerffidvd^ '*"' '^ '*^ «t t'"' very roots 

Repression for Montreal 

■ P-AUArt by United SUte, Public H«IU. &rvice. 

8mtenK^?ZJSi,S^^K^ cases; an indeterminate 



MeMurea for Reprastion 
Ne» Voik aty. "™™™ =°™1 Hyjiene ABaoctotkn, 

r^^o^ notlung toward the ?^Kti J"?^ 

SS 1913^ '^'"^' ^^««^- VICE COM- 

to DroSt^^TS °!, ^^^y ordinances relative 
S^,R *u '^"* especiaUy when supplemented bv a 

wjj Dnng the most optimistic observer tn «i 
conclusion that the ordirian^ of Ureaiv nfRSf 
^ mdarectly ena«n^e the biSL^S/^^istiS: 



nj^ikind is outbid aTthi iS5^ST™f '^ 

for her to do in order toKvei^ JS J* -fiJf??^ 
Si to ^™^ to pay a fine which the S^ 

can only be realized when a studyT^- nf vSf 


P^^^^Kh the op«3tion of its'^te^". SS dl 
uirae things, to say nothing of the whol^iaiprf^ 
semination of disease amor^its dtizLT Wf„ ^ 

wno, alter all IS said and done, is a woman, is being 


' i^M:i^ ^'« ^^^-ON or Mw«. 
in th^^Jm^L'^ •ystem was inaugumted 

the proprietor; and MnToit^^S^^ 

TJe average m 1897-1900 was iboS W7(Mo'®R: 

rait S foS to tK<S^f.^,i^ 
of the wom*n inS. /^ ^ '*"• "* "» bnngiiMf 

placed them at 150. *^ ^^^^ **<*«^ 










belie^Slo'ttSSSLTe'if'i*^ '*""»'^ '«• 
ineffective at a wthod trf VSf.i^S!!''"*!? "«»~«- 

S?T^-A rLJ2? ^- t'S*" Districts ™ 
w tiLTc ' Report published by the Sod^tC 

"The custom then in voeue was that ~,~. 
year all the diaordm-iv iJl. J^ uZL "*' °™* a 
as viotatora ofSe^aw n """^ "*« "dieted 

nouse, was conunonly known as 'Ladies' Itay/" 


suiutM women cannot be sentenced for Mv». 
offw thgr can only be fined. AU of SoiJta^ 
ter»ted in the proper can and treatment ofwmrwST 

JKllTdSuSd.^^' "**^ °^ treatn£.t iS 

ItePQRi OF THE Vice Commission of Chkaco, 

"Abolish Fining System. Two wrv nrB.^~.i 
things can be.done. The felui tJSS)U^tKS 
•yrtm now m vogue against the sSrofaffl 

girl 5<2rt1S?ve"Sel^"t^°;S*h2;- fiSe*S 
^ In either case she must return to the sta^ 


"seated against those ^^^^^ /^ °^ *'^* ^»«" 
ware for a^LSETtCKll^ fsiS?*"^^ 
cotto were tuuafiy three dollars r«^ -f? ^i" ^* 

of the pimp in 8hariSSfS^.Sff«^ « »»rtn« 


the ^^?v2r^ » a list of recommendations made by 
we Vice COTunission in American cities ud toWifi 
^^ by Mr. Jo«^ Mayer in the^Sick'i^viS 

Repressive Measures' 
Repression and Law Enforcement— 
Repress evil and enforce laws. 

Districts and Brothels— 
Abdish district. 
Close houses. 

Prosecute owners and proprietors. 
Enact Injunction and Abatement Law. 

Hotels and Rooming Houses— 

""?^iSL.*™Sf^i '^*^' "^"^ bona fide 
^^sgation: revoke license or penalize for 

Enact Tin Hate adinance. 
License and control rooming and lodsine houMt anri 
revoke Ucense for viokTtion ^^ ^^ "^ 

Salo<»js and Cafes— 

PixAibit connecting rooms, private booths, screens 
curtams. etc., and revoke license foTviSi: 
__Kestnct number of salowi Ucenses. 

* See p. 47. 

' "Socal Hygiene." vol.4, Na. 2. Apiil 19X8, pp. aoi-ajS- 


Dance Halls— 

Ucenae and supervise dance halls. 

Hjve woman offiwr or supervisor at dances. 

'^i^^f »•<»'>»«■ "aloon connection through 


CensoT, supervise and Ucense motion mcture theatres. 

SunJSfJT** "T "^"^^ lightSgand pffi' 

Supervise ptaces of amusement; suraress uSeoSt 

vaudeville, picture slot maduneTiKSd^ 

Parks and Public Places— 

^"^'^'^^tJ^'^^^T °^ *•» 't^ts and in public 

places (railroad stations, parks, etc.) 
Supervise, light, and poUce parks more adequately. 

Patrons and PRosTrruTEs— 

Pjwecute patrons or publicly expose. 
Aboh^ fining systm ajid penalize severely. 

^tKf^w"^* °' ""^ prostitutes'and re- 

White Slavery and Age of Consent— 
Enact state white slave law. 
Koae age of consent. 

Courts and Police— 

Establish morals or night court and extend pro- 
bation system. ^'^•u iko- 

Appoint police women or extend powers. 


Establish Morals Commission or Bureau. 


Preventive Measures 

Provide for rescue and reform. 

iiS lSS*°^^^^'7™?" " home of refuge, 
mth hospital and mdustrial training fadliuS 

^^^ feeble-minded women and girls md 
■eparate delmquents from semi-delinJue^tT^ 

Ohooren — 

"^roS: ** "^^ '' "i«ht and suppress 

in public schools (and 


Open up social centres 

Develop playgrounds and athletic fadUties- csUb- 

hah comfort stations and baths. 
Ext^^^ment and recreation fadUties; appoint 

Housing and Working Conditions- 

^""^^"^^^ and unsanitary condition, k 
Secure minimum or adequate wage for women and 

^"S^r^n^^^ secretaries in factories and 
m^' is. ^ ^^^ provision for comfort (rest 
rooms, etc.), and sanitation. 

Supervise employment agendes. 

Medical Measure*— 

Make venereal disease reportable 

Estob^ or enlarge free clinic and testing fadlities. 

Prohibit adverusements and sale of fake cures. 

Require medical marriage certificate 

Institute compulsory treatment of eyes of new bom. 

Disseminate knowledge of venereal perils 


Ptovide sex education:— 

in public schools to pupils: 
m training schools to teachers: 
10 parents, stressing responsibility. 
Emphasize single standard and chastity. 
Extend vocatimial education. 


ow MAIM rat rotaHRl 

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Nnr Yak Olr. CMMw Gkh. 

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